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Actin Products > Binding Proteins

All Actin Binding Proteins (ABPs) are assayed to ensure that their activities are comparable to published values.  Assays vary by product and include F-actin severing assays, F-actin-activated ATP hydrolysis, and actin polymerization assays.  Measuring the role of WASP VCA domain protein in actin polymerization is shown (right).

Cytoskeleton, Inc. sells a range of purified actin binding proteins. All Cytoskeleton's actin binding proteins are of high purity and are rigorously tested for biological activity. Cytoskeleton also provides actin proteins, antibodies and kits for actin binding protein research.

Available Products:

AAN02  AAN02-S  

Image by Louis Reed

Actin Assays

Cytoskeleton's Biochem Kits™ are comprehensive kits for assaying different aspects of cytoskeletal biochemistry and signal transduction. The kits come with all the reagents needed for your assay as well as detailed instruction on how to use them, so you will be ready to do your assays as soon as you have the kits!

 

  • Measure the effects of proteins and drugs on actin polymerization/depolymerization.

  • Discover and characterize actin binding proteins (ABPs).

  • Quantitate G-actin (monomer) vs F-actin (polymer) in cell or tissue lysate.

  • Minimize set-up time from months to days.

Available Products:

BK001  BK003  BK037

Samples
Image by Testalize.me
Image by Testalize.me

Activations Assays > Pull Down Assays

Small G-protein pull-down activation assays utilize affinity beads linked to an effector protein that selectively binds the active GTPase, followed by Western blot quantitation with highly isotype specific antibodies. These assays are compatible with mouse, rat, and human tissue and cell lysates.  All reagents to perform a non-stop experiment are included. In addition, small G-protein affinity beads, antibodies, proteins, activators, and inhibitors are available for individual purchase.

Available Products:

BK008  BK008-S  BK030  BK032-S  BK033-S  BK034  BK034-S  BK035  BK035-S  

BK036  BK036-S  BK040

Image by Louis Reed

Small G Proteins > Kits

At Cytoskeleton, they develop signal transduction kits which are focused on small G-protein research. In particular Cytoskeleton provide kits for measuring the activated forms of Rho and Ras family members, and their intrinsic properties of GTPase and GTP/GDP exchange.

 

Activation assays come in two types, the G-LISA 96-well format and the traditional pull-down variety. The G-LISA format is very accurate and flexible in that the 96-wells are divisible into 8-well strips making it the most economical option for a project. The pull-down variety has been traditionally used for testing small numbers of samples or a quick look-see experiment where low accuracy is acceptable. Unfortunately due to the low accuracy of the pull-down technique and low endogenous activation levels in some samples (may be only 10 to 20% increase in activity levels) some positive results may not be found. We recommend utilizing the GLISA assay wherever possible due to the greater confidence obtained from higher accuracy.

Available Products:

BK121  BK124  BK124-S  BK125  BK126  BK127  BK127-S  BK128  BK128-S

BK129  BK131  BK132  BK133  BK135  BK150

Image by National Cancer Institute
Image by National Cancer Institute

Live Cell Imaging Reagents > Small G-proteins Activators & Inhibitors

The G-switch™ line of small G-protein tools are highly potent reagents that target endogenous Rho family proteins and pathways.  In contrast to methods that rely on over-expression or knockdown of target proteins (e.g., DNA transfection of dominant-negative or constitutively-active Rho  mutants, RNAi knockdown), G-switch™ reagents act rapidly on the endogenous target protein (in minutes to hours), thereby optimizing the chance of generating a more physiologically relevant response.  

 

  • Cell Permeable

  • Rapid Results (within minutes)

  • Highly Validated and Published

Available Products:

CN01-A  CN01-B  CN02-A  CN02-B  CN03-A  CN03-B  CN04-A  CN04-B  

Image by Louis Reed

Small G Proteins > Inhibitors

The G-switch line of Activators and Inhibitors are state of the art reagents for studying the effects of small G-proteins (SGPs) in your field of research. The Rho and Ras family of SGPs is important in cell motility, cell morphology, cell division, cell growth and proliferation, hence in many areas the activators and inhibitors can give you additional information about the mechanism and role of the pathway being investigated. The G-switch line has been developed to modify the endogenous SGP components rather than modifying their levels (as in siRNA studies) or introducing mutated forms which have other downstream effects (e.g., Rho Q63L). The results should at the least give a different perspective and ideally give you highly relevant information about the effects of modulating the endogenous SGP activity.

Available Products:

CT03-A  CT03-C  CT04-A  CT04-B  CT04-C  

Image by CDC

Live Cell Imaging Reagents > Spirochrome: SiR Probes

Live-cell imaging probes developed by Spirochrome are cell-permeable compounds which stain microtubules (SiR-Tubulin), F-actin (SiR-Actin), Lysosomes (SiR-Lysosome) and chromosomal DNA (SiR-DNA) in living cells.  These probes were recently introduced in a landmark papers published in Nature Methods and Nature recently featured on the cover of the Journal of Biological Chemistry

Qualities of the probe:

  • Cell Permeable

  • Photostable

  • Very Low Background

  • Superresolution

  • Far-Red Fluorophore

  • Fluorogenic

  • Non-Cytotoxic

Available Products:

CY-SC001  CY-SC002  CY-SC006  CY-SC007  CY-SC012  CY-SC020

Image by Louis Reed

Live Cell Imaging Reagents > Spirochrome: SiR700 Probes

The SiR700 series of probes is based on the far-red silicon rhodamine (SiR) fluorophore analogue SiR700. These live-cell imaging probes developed by Spirochrome are cell-permeable compounds which stain microtubules (SiR700-Tubulin), F-actin (SiR700-Actin), Lysosomes (SiR700-Lysosome) and chromosomal DNA (SiR700-DNA) in living cells similarly to the original SiR probes.  In combination with standard SiR-probes, SiR700-actin allows dual colour imaging experiments in live cells.  

Available Products:

CY-SC013  CY-SC014  CY-SC015  CY-SC016

3T3_500nM_SiR700-actin_2.jpg
SPY505-DNA_SPY555-actin_STED_vs_CLSM_1.png
SPY505-DNA_SPY555-actin_STED_vs_CLSM_1.png

Live Cell Imaging Reagents > Spirochrome: SPY™ Probes

In 2015, Cytoskeleton introduced multiple live cell imaging probes from Spirochrome Ltd. These revolutionary probes simplified and streamlined live cell imaging. Cytoskeleton is excited to introduce the next generation of Spirochrome’s live cell imaging probes - the SPY™ probes. SPY™ probes improve upon the SiR and SiR700 live cell imaging probes in the far-red channels while also expanding the fluorophore labeling options for the study of F-actin, microtubules, and DNA in living cells.

Spirochrome’s SPY™ probes Advantages:
• Increased cell membrane permeability
• Verapamil no longer needed for consistent staining
• Improved compatibility across more cell lines
• Less cytotoxic than SiR probes
• Increased spectra range: FITC, TRITC, and Texas Red

Available Products:

CY-SC101  CY-SC201  CY-SC202  CY-SC203  CY-SC301  CY-SC401  CY-SC402  CY-SC501  

CY-SC503  CY-SC601  

Image by Louis Reed

Live Cell Imaging Reagents > Spirochrome: Benzylguanine Substrates

BG-SPY and BG-SiR enables investigators to label their SNAP-tagged-fused-protein of interest with these fluorescent dyes; thus, harnessing the exceptional qualities of the SPY and SiR probes to enhance their investigation and understanding of their target protein. 

Atributes of SPY and SiR Probes:

  • Fluorogenic

  • Cell Permeable 

  • Multiple Fluorophore Options 

  • Simple Protocols

  • Exellent for STED Microscopy

Available Products:

CY-SC204  CY-SC404  CY-SC504  CY-SC604 

Live Cell Imaging Reagents > MemGlow™ Probes for Bioimaging

Cytoskeleton is proud to announce 5 new bright fluorogenic probes to visualize the cellular plasma membrane.  Originally developed as the MemBright™ probes,  MemGlow™ probes provide high photostability, exhibit excellent fluorescent quantum yields, and some of them are super-resolution compatible.

MemGlow™ probes are chemically composed of cyanine or BODIPY dyes bearing zwitterionic amphiphilic anchors for enhanced retention in the plasma membrane.

The fluorogenic nature of MemGlow™ probes translates to minimal fluorescent emission until their contact with the plasma membrane elicits integration into the lipid bilayer. This characteristic creates minimal background, bright plasma membrane localization, and a no-wash-required application.

MemGlow™ probes are highly efficient and allow scientists to visualize cellular nanostructures with nanomolar probe concentrations. 

Features and advantages of MemGlow™ probes:

  • Bright and fluorogenic

  • Simple staining protocol and low working concentration

  • Compatible with live and fixed cell staining

  • Compatible with ex vivo and fixed tissue staining 

  • MemGlow™ 590 is super-resolution compatible

  • Non-toxic probes permit long-term imaging and re-imaging of live cells

  • Efficient labeling of filopodia and nanotubes at nanomolar concentrations

  • No dye quenching steps required

  • Do not alter sample biology

  • Utilize cyanine or BODIPY dyes with zwitterionic membrane anchor groups

  • Superior to many existing plasma membrane dyes

Spirochrome’s SPY™ probes Advantages:
• Increased cell membrane permeability
• Verapamil no longer needed for consistent staining
• Improved compatibility across more cell lines
• Less cytotoxic than SiR probes
• Increased spectra range: FITC, TRITC, and Texas Red

Available Products:

MG01-02  MG01-10  MG02-02  MG02-10  MG03-02  MG03-10  MG04-02  MG04-10

MG05-02  MG05-10

Image by Louis Reed

Actin Products > Acti-Stain™ Fluorescent Phalloidins

The Acti-stain™ line of fluorescent phalloidins has been developed with an emphasis on creating exceptionally bright and stable probes at an economical price. Side-by-side comparisons with leading competing products demonstrate that you will enjoy savings while not sacrificing the quality of the stain when switching to an Acti-stain™ probe. Additionally, these probes are compatible with popular filter sets such as FITC, TRITC and Cy 5. The combination of in-house manufacturing, stringent quality control and convenient packaging provides a great value. Give them a try and see for yourself.

 

Product Uses Include

  • Stain F-actin in fixed cells

  • Stabilize actin filaments in vitro

  • Visualize actin filaments in vitro 

 

Actin staining is very useful in determining the structure and function of the cytoskeleton in living and fixed cells. The actin cytoskeleton is a very dynamic and labile structure in the living cell, but it can be fixed with paraformaldehyde prior to probing or staining for actin structures.

Available Products:

PHDG1-A  PHDH1-A  PHDN1-A  PHDR1